How Lolo Pedro Swatted a Toratora and Died

While browsing the internet, I chanced on a science news article on the genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia among Han Chinese. The Nature article revealed  two independent studies that identified “sections of the human genome that, when deleted, can elevate the risk of developing schizophrenia by up to 15 times compared with the general population.” I won’t go into the details of the article because, aside from my lack of expertise on the subject matter, the popular version of the two articles is good enough for non-technical readers like myself.

This blog article however will share a cultural correlate to the science news article. While mental diseases are biological, these are expressed in specific cultural and historical circumstances. I take the medical anthropologist’s cue therefore of differentiating disease, which is biological, from illnesses, a cultural concept. It is within this light that I share my maternal relatives’ reckoning with pagkabuang (roughly translated as insanity). All behaviors or mental states that deviate from the “normal” is considered buang in Cebuano. Psychological illnesses, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, dementia, etc, are all subsumed under this general word category.

The family lore goes that at least one member, usually male, of every generation will succumb to a mental illness. I don’t know if there’s a biological basis to this story or whether a professional diagnosis was availed of (except for one), but as far as my mother is concerned, our “schizophrenia” simply runs in the blood–no need to question it, you just keep the grip on what’s real and what’s not and you won’t lose it. This story has been used as a warning to all my relatives to not overdo things or do drugs, because “we got craziness in our blood,” one slip and off we go to Lalaland.  Like us, my mother’s generation too had been told time and again to fear this supposed “genetic tendency” and thus must learn to negotiate life’s challenges with calm and ease. I believe this is not simply an old wives’ tale that older relatives concocted to keep us in check. Aside from the logical fact that they could’ve just scared us off with the usual monsters and the roasting pits of hell, my maternal relatives saw how a grandfather, an uncle, and two cousins were blighted by this illness.

The origin of the “schizophrenia” myth started with the unusual death of my mother’s maternal grandfather who was shot by Japanese soldiers in the dying days of World War II. When the villagers heard that the soldiers were on patrol, they fled to their mountain hideout except for Lolo Pedro. The soldiers spotted Lolo Pedro on top of a coconut tree cursing at toratora or zero fighter aircrafts flying overhead. He also brought with him a long stick to swat at these flying jetfighters, flaying at them everytime they passed by the coconut tree. He was an easy target for the patrolling soldiers. They trained their rifles towards Lolo Pedro, placed him in their rifles’ crosshairs, squeezed their triggers, and took the crazed man down from the tree.

You see, the tiny island of Po’o at that time was right smack in the middle of the largest naval battle in world history, The Battle of Leyte Gulf. This was the naval war when Allied forces first witnessed Japanese toratora planes diving straight at enemy warships and gunboats. The Allied Forces however routinely defeated the Japanese forces in less than a week. For older island residents, the impact of this war was such that time and history were only divided into three episodes: before the war (wala pay gera), during the war (panahon sa gera), and after the war (pistaym). Personal events, like birthdays, are remembered more along this organizing principle of time than the actual dates.

The war was a shock to many island residents. From a sleepy fishing village, the place had been converted into a battle zone. The villagers were rounded up and their movement monitored and restricted. Many were subjected to abuses. Rumors reached that children were flung to the air and then stabbed with bayonets. Some of those who escaped the encampment were pursued and killed. A relative of mine, who was then a child, escaped a gruesome death when she pretended to be dead after getting stabbed with a bayonet. With her guts spilling out of her abdomen, adult relatives sneaked the child out of the island on a canoe. They traveled a full day to the neighboring island of Leyte where she was nursed back to health.

Coconut Fiber Dress. My grandfather didn’t quite sew something as grandiose as this, but yes you got the point of him sewing clothes from coconut fibers.

Those who escaped the Japanese garrison fled to mountain hideouts. While there, they lived a semblance of a normal life, far from the reach of the occupying forces. My late maternal grandfather, a Chinese immigrant tailor (whose timberland-owning family scampered out of China because of the Nationalist Revolution of Sun Yat Sen–yet another interesting story to pursue!), remembered sewing clothes from coconut fibers for the refugees (see photo on the side to give you an idea). The violence spiraled that whenever there was a chance for retribution, the island residents grabbed every opportunity for revenge–Japanese soldiers, who survived the naval battle and found themselves beached on the island, were routinely attacked and killed.

If you’ve been to the island of Po’o, you would not imagine that this place had once witnessed so much bloodshed. Your day starts with a rooster’s call and ends with the warmth of bahalina down your throat. Yet World War II was a crazy time. And, apparently, we still feel the insanity of war in our “genes.”

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A Gene Story: the Negritos’ Early Southern Migration

ResearchBlogging.orgCurrent Biology’s article, The Human Genetic History of East Asia: Weaving a Complex Tapestry, presents another interesting evidence on the peopling of East Asia using evidences from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and non-recombining Y chromosomes (NRY) haplogroups.

Stoneking and Delfin’s genetic evidence presented an early southern dispersal that created refugia populations. The authors suggested that Philippine Negritos, Malaysian Semangs, Andamanese, and indigenous Australians were descendants of this early migration. They said that C-M130 is found sporadically in India and southeast Asia, and reaches its highest frequencies in eastern Indonesia and some Filipino Negrito groups. Previous investigators revealed that NRY haplogroups, C-M130 and D-M174, are indicators of an early southern migration route.

The authors claimed that the colonization of East Asia may had been a south-to-north route. They posited that there is a “strong and highly significant correlation between haplotype diversity and latitude, with higher diversity in the south and lower diversity in the north.” This pattern is a “compelling evidence for a primary south-to-north direction for the colonization of east Asia.”

The genetic evidence of the Negrito groups also suggested that there was an “early isolation and followed by a recent admixture.” Stoneking and Delfin posited that “the ancestors of the Negritos either represent an earlier migration, or they were isolated from other Asian groups early after entering Asia in the same migration as the ancestors of non-Negrito groups, to account for the distinctive mtDNA and NRY lineages in Negrito groups.” Nonetheless, the genetic similarities between Negritos and non-Negrito groups may have been due to high levels of contact in recent times.

There has been much debate on the peopling of the Philippines among anthropological circles. So, this paper is a welcome addition to the theorizing of the Philippine’s prehistoric past. What gets the most press in Philippine archaeology has been the north-to-south Neolithic dispersal, championed by Peter Bellwood. His theory argues that proto-Austronesian groups from Taiwan migrated to the Philippines, Indonesia, and went all the way to Madagascar, bringing with them their language, technology, and culture. Absent in Bellwood’s model however, which is supplied here by Stoneking and Delfin, is the understanding of the Philippine past before agriculture came about–the time of the Philippine Paleolithic.

What is quite surprising is the fact that the genetic evidence for an early southern migration fits well with H. Otley Beyer’s claim that the Philippines was first settled by Negritos then repopulated by more recent migrations. Beyer, who was the first to propose a theory of the peopling of the Philippines, has been a target board for generations of Philippine anthropologists wanting to propose an alternative model for the human colonization of the Philippine archipelago.

Stoneking, M., & Delfin, F. (2010). The Human Genetic History of East Asia: Weaving a Complex Tapestry Current Biology, 20 (4) DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.11.052